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Each of the three philosophers criticizes.
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Phenomenological Epistemology By Henry Pietersma. No cover image. Read preview.
Synopsis This work offers a provocative new historical and systematic interpretation of the epistemological doctrines of three twentieth-century giants: Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty. Pietersma argues that these three philosophers, while connected by their phenomenological doctrines, have underappreciated and interestingly-linked views on the theory of knowledge.
But similar situations occur in other philosophical as well as nonphilosophical movements. Moreover, most adherents to phenomenology hold that it is possible to obtain insights into the essential structures and the essential relationships of these phenomena on the basis of a careful study of concrete examples supplied by experience or imagination and by a systematic variation of these examples in the imagination. It may also be helpful to bring out the distinctive essence of phenomenology by comparing it with some of its philosophical neighbours.
Consequently, phenomenology does not reject universals , and, in addition to analytic a priori statements, whose predicates are logically contained in the subjects and the truth of which is independent of experience e. In contrast to phenomenalism , a position in the theory of knowledge epistemology with which it is often confused, phenomenology—which is not primarily an epistemological theory—accepts neither the rigid division between appearance and reality nor the narrower view that phenomena are all that there is sensations or permanent possibilities of sensations.
These are questions on which phenomenology as such keeps an open mind—pointing out, however, that phenomenalism overlooks the complexities of the intentional structure of consciousness of the phenomena.
Phenomenology shares with ordinary-language philosophy a respect for the distinctions between the phenomena reflected in the shades of meaning of ordinary language as a possible starting point for phenomenological analyses. Phenomenologists, however, do not think that the study of ordinary language is a sufficient basis for studying the phenomena, because ordinary language cannot and need not completely reveal the complexity of phenomena. In contrast to an existential philosophy that believes that human existence is unfit for phenomenological analysis and description, because it tries to objectify the unobjectifiable, phenomenology holds that it can and must deal with these phenomena, however cautiously, as well as other intricate phenomena outside human existence.