Mistakes and ambiguities in the definition of Standard ML

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After encountering a fatal error, the processor MAY continue processing the data to search for further errors and MAY report such errors to the application. In order to support correction of errors, the processor MAY make unprocessed data from the document with intermingled character data and markup available to the application. Violations of well-formedness constraints are fatal errors.

No case folding is performed. Of strings and rules in the grammar: A string matches a grammatical production if it belongs to the language generated by that production. Of content and content models: An element matches its declaration when it conforms in the fashion described in the constraint [VC: Element Valid ].

In addition, the XML document is valid if it meets certain further constraints. Each XML document has both a logical and a physical structure. Physically, the document is composed of units called entities. An entity may refer to other entities to cause their inclusion in the document.

A document begins in a "root" or document entity. Logically, the document is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions, all of which are indicated in the document by explicit markup. The logical and physical structures MUST nest properly, as described in 4. Each of the parsed entities which is referenced directly or indirectly within the document is well-formed. More simply stated, the elements, delimited by start- and end-tags, nest properly within each other. P is referred to as the parent of C , and C as a child of P. The versions of these standards cited in A.

New characters may be added to these standards by amendments or new editions.

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The mechanism for encoding character code points into bit patterns may vary from entity to entity. Document authors are encouraged to avoid "compatibility characters", as defined in section 2. The characters defined in the following ranges are also discouraged. They are either control characters or permanently undefined Unicode characters:. S white space consists of one or more space x20 characters, carriage returns, line feeds, or tabs. The presence of xD in the above production is maintained purely for backward compatibility with the First Edition.

As explained in 2.

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The only way to get a xD character to match this production is to use a character reference in an entity value literal. Names beginning with the string " xml ", or with any string which would match 'X' 'x' 'M' 'm' 'L' 'l' , are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. Therefore, authors should not use the colon in XML names except for namespace purposes, but XML processors must accept the colon as a name character.

Almost all characters are permitted in names, except those which either are or reasonably could be used as delimiters. The intention is to be inclusive rather than exclusive, so that writing systems not yet encoded in Unicode can be used in XML names. Document authors are encouraged to use names which are meaningful words or combinations of words in natural languages, and to avoid symbolic or white space characters in names. The ASCII symbols and punctuation marks, along with a fairly large group of Unicode symbol characters, are excluded from names because they are more useful as delimiters in contexts where XML names are used outside XML documents; providing this group gives those contexts hard guarantees about what cannot be part of an XML name.

The Names and Nmtokens productions are used to define the validity of tokenized attribute values after normalization see 3. Literal data is any quoted string not containing the quotation mark used as a delimiter for that string. Literals are used for specifying the content of internal entities EntityValue , the values of attributes AttValue , and external identifiers SystemLiteral.

Note that a SystemLiteral can be parsed without scanning for markup. Text consists of intermingled character data and markup. They are not part of the document's character data ; an XML processor MAY , but need not, make it possible for an application to retrieve the text of comments.

The following example is not well-formed. The PI begins with a target PITarget used to identify the application to which the instruction is directed. The target names " XML ", " xml ", and so on are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. CDATA sections cannot nest. The function of the markup in an XML document is to describe its storage and logical structure and to associate attribute name-value pairs with its logical structures.


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XML provides a mechanism, the document type declaration , to define constraints on the logical structure and to support the use of predefined storage units. The document type declaration MUST appear before the first element in the document. Even though the VersionNum production matches any version number of the form '1.

When an XML 1. This means that an XML 1.

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This grammar is known as a document type definition, or DTD. The document type declaration can point to an external subset a special kind of external entity containing markup declarations, or can contain the markup declarations directly in an internal subset, or can do both. The DTD for a document consists of both subsets taken together. For further information, see 4 Physical Structures. Note that it is possible to construct a well-formed document containing a doctypedecl that neither points to an external subset nor contains an internal subset.

The markup declarations may be made up in whole or in part of the replacement text of parameter entities. The productions later in this specification for individual nonterminals elementdecl , AttlistDecl , and so on describe the declarations after all the parameter entities have been included. Parameter entity references are recognized anywhere in the DTD internal and external subsets and external parameter entities , except in literals, processing instructions, comments, and the contents of ignored conditional sections see 3.

They are also recognized in entity value literals.

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The use of parameter entities in the internal subset is restricted as described below. Validity constraint: Root Element Type. Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with markup declarations. That is to say, if either the first character or the last character of a markup declaration markupdecl above is contained in the replacement text for a parameter-entity reference , both MUST be contained in the same replacement text.

Well-formedness constraint: PEs in Internal Subset. This does not apply to references that occur in external parameter entities or to the external subset.

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Well-formedness constraint: External Subset. Well-formedness constraint: PE Between Declarations. Like the internal subset, the external subset and any external parameter entities referenced in a DeclSep MUST consist of a series of complete markup declarations of the types allowed by the non-terminal symbol markupdecl , interspersed with white space or parameter-entity references.

However, portions of the contents of the external subset or of these external parameter entities may conditionally be ignored by using the conditional section construct; this is not allowed in the internal subset but is allowed in external parameter entities referenced in the internal subset. The external subset and external parameter entities also differ from the internal subset in that in them, parameter-entity references are permitted within markup declarations, not only between markup declarations.

The system identifier " hello. If both the external and internal subsets are used, the internal subset MUST be considered to occur before the external subset. This has the effect that entity and attribute-list declarations in the internal subset take precedence over those in the external subset. Markup declarations can affect the content of the document, as passed from an XML processor to an application; examples are attribute defaults and entity declarations. The standalone document declaration, which may appear as a component of the XML declaration, signals whether or not there are such declarations which appear external to the document entity or in parameter entities.

In a standalone document declaration, the value "yes" indicates that there are no external markup declarations which affect the information passed from the XML processor to the application. The value "no" indicates that there are or may be such external markup declarations. Note that the standalone document declaration only denotes the presence of external declarations ; the presence, in a document, of references to external entities , when those entities are internally declared, does not change its standalone status. If there are no external markup declarations, the standalone document declaration has no meaning.

If there are external markup declarations but there is no standalone document declaration, the value "no" is assumed. Validity constraint: Standalone Document Declaration. The standalone document declaration MUST have the value "no" if any external markup declarations contain declarations of:. In editing XML documents, it is often convenient to use "white space" spaces, tabs, and blank lines to set apart the markup for greater readability.